Why Weight Loss Surgery is Not What You Expect

If you think that a weight loss surgery is your answer to no effort slimming – think again. Surgical weight loss is not another quick fix to lose weight and look attractive without even trying. It is in fact, a commitment that is undertaken by a patient to limit his or her food intake, observing a healthy diet and exercising regularly after surgery – for as long as you shall live.

Weight loss surgery is an option for overly over-weight people to become healthy again and reduce their risk of developing weight-related disease such as diabetes, high blood pressure, cancer and heart complications. Many of surgical weight loss patients turn to surgery after they have exhausted conventional weight loss methods that usually involve repeatedly losing and gaining weight over and over again.

Being overly heavy can effect quality of life and one’s self esteem, not to mention health. Surgical weight loss can be a viable alternative to be in control for people who have excess weight of 1/5 from their ideal body weight. In fact, according to large-scale studies, weight loss surgery can significantly lower the risk of premature death in obese people by as much as 40%.

The outcome of weight loss surgery can vary from one patient to another. It all depends on how well the body adapt and how disciplined you are when following post surgery diet and workout program. Evidently, surgical is not a set and forget short cut to deal with excess weight. However, by joining a support group, you will be able to discover yummy recipes that you still get to enjoy.

Your diet will change forever as your body have. For example, if you have a lapband surgery, your calorie intake perday is only limited to 1000 to 1200. Since there is only so much food you can tolerate, choosing nutritious food over empty calories become very important. You’ll also need to take supplements for the rest of your life to ensure that you get proper nutrition.

It is also important to know that you may not be able to tolerate certain kind of food post surgery. Any junk food that carry empty calories are completely prohibited. Although there are no guarantees, on an average, patients usually lose about 60 to 80 % of their excess fat in 18 months following surgery.

Rebuild Your Credit With A Prepaid Credit Card

It can be pretty tough when your credit is bad and it is next to impossible to get credit when you need it. Most major credit card companies will not talk to you, and a lender – well, forget about it. There is a way, though, out of the tough situation with a prepaid credit card. Here is what you can do with a prepaid credit card to help rebuild your credit score.

Need A Bad Credit Rating

One of the best things about a prepaid credit card is that it was designed for people with bad credit. In fact, that is one of the qualifications. There will not be any check on your credit rating, or your employment. Anyone can get one of these credit cards, but you will need to deposit a cash amount equal to the credit limit you want. This lets you know that it operates on a debit basis – no actual credit is given.

Get A Card That Reports To A Credit Bureau

Not many prepaid credit cards actually report to a credit bureau. That is, however, the kind of card that you want to get. While others make having cash handy, it really will not help you (or anyone with bad credit) in the long run.

Watch The Fees

Prepaid credit cards often come with a number of fees. You should compare one card with another in order to get the fewest fees. In order to get a prepaid credit card that reports to a credit bureau, you will probably have to pay an annual fee – could be as high as $ 100.

Look For Benefits

Most prepaid cards do not come with any benefits, but some do. You can get points, like on a regular credit card, that are useable for a few benefits – like free phone time, and more.

No Credit Card Abuse

Another good thing about these credit cards is that you can never go over your limit, or have to pay any late fees or interest. (Hey, this is sounding better all the time). This means that if it reports to a credit bureau, that it would be impossible to get a lower score than what you may already have with this kind of card.

Easily Put Cash On Your Card

Most prepaid cards will allow you to easily put credit on it from just about anywhere. You can even put your paycheck onto it by Direct Deposit.

Use It Like A Credit Card

A number of these prepaid credit cards can be used in the same way as a credit card. You can set up automatic bill payments, purchase things online, or over the phone. If you want this feature, however, be sure that the ad says that you can do this.

Like any other credit card, you will want to compare features and fees in order to find the best prepaid credit card for your needs. While most of them are similar, the fees vary broadly. Since no qualifications are needed, why not get the best?

Discounted Cash Flow Modelling to Achieve Personal Financial Goals

A discounted cash flow or DCF model is a style of calculation linking streams of future money flows to lump sum amounts. Discounted cash flow models have a range of business-related applications, and are used extensively by economists, accountants, actuaries, engineers, business valuators, finance professionals, and others.

For example, a company may wish to finance a project if (and only if) the Internal Rate of Return exceeds 10% per year. The anticipated development costs for the project may be large for the initial year. On the other hand, significant revenues are anticipated for Year 2 onward. The company directors rely on a DCF model to help determine whether or not the project's Internal Rate of Return exceed their 10% threshold.

Discounted cash flow models also have important applications in everyday life that are often overlooked. For example, consider auto dealers who advertise low finance rates to prospective clients. From a car buyer's perspective, low finance rates are understood to be good, since they mean lower monthly payments. By using a DCF model, a buyer can determine the monetary value on the low finance rate offer.

Everyday use of a Discounted Cash Flow model would include (but would not be restricted to) the following:

  • Mortgage Refinancing: For homeowners with a fixed-rate mortgage, refinancing often debts paying a penalty. A DCF model can be used to calculate whether the interest savings exceeded the penalty cost
  • First-Time Home Ownership: First time home ownership involves many new costs, and can be intimidating to many of us. A DCF model can help by comparing long term home ownership costs against rental costs
  • Lease or Own Vehicle: A DCF model can help car shoppers in their decision whether to buy or lease a vehicle

Examples of these and other everyday applications can be viewed at the author's website.

Through the above (and other) practical applications, Discounted Cash Flow models can assist all of us in achieving our personal financial goals.

Preformulation and Formulation Development

Optimizing Conformational Stability and Biological ActivityMaintenance of the native three dimensional conformation is critical for the long term stability and biological activity of biotherapeutics. Biophysical characterization techniques such as circular dichroism, differential scanning calorimetry, FTIR, dynamic light scattering, and fluorescence spectroscopy provide a mechanism to assess the conformational and thermodynamic stability of proteins under a range of formulation conditions. These tools allow development scientists to differentiate various various buffer, pH, ionic strength, and excipient conditions, and identify the conditions that confer the optimum environment for the therapeutic protein.

Utilizing Advanced Statistical Design for Preformulation Development Preformulation development includes statistical design of experiments, allowing simultaneous evaluation of multiple factors and evaluation of interactions between factors. It is crucial to use advanced biophysical characterization techniques to evaluate the conformational stability of large molecules in addition to traditional methods for evaluation of chemical stability.

A large molecule preformulation development program typically includes the following activities:
Evaluate the effect of pH, buffer type, and ionic strength on solubility.
Evaluate the effect of various excipients on improving solubility if necessary.
Evaluate effects of pH, buffer type, and excipients on conformational stability.
Evaluate the effect of pH, buffers, excipients and ionic strength on physical and chemical stability.
Utilize a statistical design approach to identify the optimal conditions for structural, physical and chemical stability.
Perform forced degradation to elucidate product degradation pathways and to demonstrate the stability-indicating capacity of the analytical methods.
Forced degradation studies typically include restricted oxidation, deamidation, aggregation (via agitation), and / or acid / base hydrolysis.
Evaluation of heat stress, photo stress, and freeze thaw are also performed.

Looking for information on Analytical Development and other related resources?

Formulation Development for Numerous Dosage FormsFormulation development includes dosage forms for parenteral, oral topical and inhalation administration, including liquids, gels, suspensions, emulsions and lyophilized powders. Formulation scientists are highly skilled in the development of the dosage forms most relevant to biotherapeutics, with particular expertise in lyophilization and development of stable liquid formulations for proteins. High concentration antibody formulation development for subcutaneous administration requires particular emphasis on viscosity and tonicity. Lyophilization cycle development is performed in the context of the unique thermodynamic properties of the API to deliver an efficient, scalable, transferable process resulting in optimum product stability and reconfiguration characteristics. Formulation development capabilities also include:

Effect of excipients on solubility, tonicity, and viscosity Evaluation of antioxidant and conservative compatibility Container-closure compatibility Long term and accelerated stability studies.

Advantages of Formulation Development Approach. This outlined approach to preformulation and formulation development result in significant savings to the client by eliminating the variables associated with suboptimal formulations. Preclinical development efforts in PK, PD, ADME and toxicology occur with confidence that additional uncontrollable variables from unstable formulations are not introduced into the study. This benefit extends far into clinical trials as well, where assessment of toxicity, dosage levels and efficiency are substantially influenced by an optimal formulation that preserves the three dimensional conformation of the therapeutic protein. By eliminating uncontrolled stability variables, the focus is placed solely on the therapeutic performance and clinical outcome.